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GMBSLG 2000 : 2000 | LUBL5B 660 : 10 | LUBP3 1100 : 20 | LUBP4 950 : 0 | LUBP5A 770 : 10 | LUBPDD5C 580 : 65 | LUJM2 1010 : 30 | LUWG5B 600 : 0 | LWJM1 1280 : 150 | LWJM2 1200 : 230 | LWSD3 1265 : 0 | UJMA7 1233 : 47 | UJMA8 1210 : 40 | UJMB6 1310 : 0 | UJMB7 1260 : 30 | UJMB8 1220 : 60 | ULK5 1320 : 15 | ULK6 1300 : 22 | USDA5 1345 : 10 | RWPA5 1250 : 240 | WHGS3 4050 : 20 | WWSS3 3800 : 100 | WWSS4 3700 : 120 | WWSS5 3500 : 100 | WWSSUG 3460 : 60
 

Coffee is a beverage obtained from coffee plant’s fruit called cherry. The coffee plant refers to any type of tree in the genus madder family which is actually a tropical evergreen shrub that has the potential to grow 100 feet tall. Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta are the two most commonly cultivated species of coffee plant having economic significance. Arabica accounts for about 70 percent of the world's coffee production. Robusta coffee trees represent about 30 percent of the world's market

The coffee trees grow well in tropical regions with abundant rainfall, year-round warm temperatures with no frost. The coffee tree needs an average temperature between 17° C to 23° C with abundant precipitation and good soil conditions for good growth. The coffee plant produces its first full crop of beans at about 5 years old and then remains productive for about 15 years.


Domestic Scenario: Ethiopia is known to be the birth place for coffee. Coffee is the major export commodity cultivated in Ethiopia. Coffee grown in Ethiopia is known all over the world for it excellent quality and flavor. Today, Ethiopia stands as the biggest coffee producer and exporter in Africa and amongst the leading in the world.

Coffee Varieties: The type and grade of coffee is highly diverse in Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the producer for the several renowned varieties of coffee including Sidama, Yirgacheffe, jimma and Harar. Apart from these, there are several other famous varieties that Ethiopia produces. The Ethiopian coffee is processed in two ways, washed processing and the sundried processing.

Commercialization: The crop of coffee is the major earner of foreign exchange for the country. It is the primary exportable commodity that earns the valuable foreign exchange for the country. However, coffee is also having a vibrant domestic market.

Prices: Coffee prices exhibited high inter year variations from season to season. These variations are a combined effect of the factors reflecting domestic supply and the periodic trends of the global coffee demand and supply situations. Also the variation can be seen between different varieties and grades of the coffee also. Some varieties like the yeirgacheffe and sidama command considerable premium in the International markets.

Contracts
  1. ECX Coffee Contract
 

Domestic Scenario: Ethiopia is known to be the center or origin and diversity for cultivated sesame. Sesame seed is one of the oilseed crops grown in Ethiopia. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world. Today, India and China are the world's largest producers of sesame, followed by Burma, Sudan, Mexico, Nigeria, Venezuela, Turkey, Uganda and Ethiopia.

Product Varieties: The improved varieties of sesame seen in use in the country include Adi, Abasena, Qelfo 74, Mehado-80, Argene, Terkamo, E, S, T-85 and Tate.

Agro-Ecological Conditions: The growth of sesame is indeterminant, as the plant continues to produce leaves and flowers so longs as the weather permits. Weighing roughly one ounce each, seeds of lighter colors are considered of higher quality. Sesame is drought tolerant though not tolerant of water logging.

While it has the potential to grow in different parts of the country, sesame grows mainly in the northern and northwestern regions of Ethiopia (Humera and Wellega). For areas with shorter rainy season periods, the planting period should fall immediately after the onset of the rainy period (June to mid-September). The planting period for areas with longer rainy seasons (late May to October) the planting period should fall in the middle of that period, during which the farmer can benefit from both the rain and sun. Additionally, sesame seed can grow well in lowland/humid areas with altitudes of up to 1,250m with preferred rainfall of 500-800mm.

Domestic Production: In 2005/06, Ethiopia's volume of main season sesame seed production was .16 million tons. During the same year, sesame seed accounted for 1.2 % of major crops production (including oilseeds and pulses). For the period, 1998/99-2005/06, main season production of sesame seed, on average, accounted for 0.5% of total national major crop production that includes cereals, pulses and oilseeds. In the last five years, the main season yield of sesame seed has reached a high of .89 tons per hectare.

Commercialization: Crop utilization survey data shows that, of the total national production of sesame seed, 32.31% was utilized for household consumption, 57.66% for sale; while the balance was used for seed, wage in kind, and animal feed.

In general, research result shows that, excluding the volume of grain set aside for consumption, seed and feed, 28% of total grain production (including oilseeds and pulses) is marketed, of which 40% is accounted for by oil seed crops in general.

Global Scenario: Ethiopia is a major sesame seed exporter in the world market. In 2005/06 Ethiopia exported 237, 565 tons valued at about 197.9 million USD (84 million Birr), accounting for roughly 94% of the total export earning from oilseeds and 19% of total national export earning. This increase in global demand has turned the highly domestic consumption item into an important export commodity. The world production of sesame seed, in 2004, reached 3.3 million tons in 2004, with world exports totaling 802,063 /valued at 650 million USD/ and volume of world imports reaching 903,368 tons /valued at 846 million USD/.

Prices: Sesame seed wholesale prices exhibited high intra and inter year variations during 2004-2006, reflecting domestic supply and the periodic trends of the global sesame seed demand and supply situations. For instance, available intra-year wholesale price variation /highest and lowest/ for the Gonder market in 2005 was 17%.

 


Contracts
  1. ECX Sesame Seed
 

Domestic Scenario: Haricot bean is one of the most important grain legumes grown in the low lands of Ethiopia, particularly in the Rift Valley. In these areas, white pea beans are grown for export purposes as well as for domestic consumption. Haricot bean is also a principal food crop particularly in the southern and eastern parts of Ethiopia.

Product Varieties: The varieties of haricot beans in use in the country include white, mixed, red, and other color types. The white haricot bean varieties are: Mexican 142, Awash 1 and Awash Melka. The other types of haricot bean varieties include: Key, Wolayta, Roba 1, Atendaba Brown, Speckled, Ayenew, Gofta, Zebra, Gobe Rash, Beshbesh, Melke, Tabor, Batagonia, Angeber, and TV.

Agro-Ecological Conditions: The altitude suitable for the growth of haricot bean ranges between 600 and 2,200m. The planting period for the haricot bean needs to be properly set such that harvest period falls during the dry season or before the onset of the rainy periods with a suitable rainfall between 450-700mm. The duration from planting to harvesting, for areas with altitude of 1,000-1,700m, is 85-95 days, while for areas with altitudes of 1,500-2,200m the duration becomes 110 days. Concerning the white pea bean, it is sown from the end of June to mid-July, usually not intercropped, and harvested after three months in October.

Domestic Production:  In year 2005/06, Ethiopia’s volume of main season haricot bean production was .24 million tons, accounting for 1.8% of major crops production. The lion’s share of haricot bean production in the country (during the period 2004-06) originated mainly from three regions: Oromia (65%), SNNPR (22%) and Amhara (11%). The main season yield of Haricot Bean, for the period 1998/99-2005/06, ranged from a low of 0.62 tons per hectare to a high of 0.94 tons per hectare. During this period, Haricot Bean yield levels averaged 0.82 tons per hectare

Commercialization: Throughout different regions, namely SNNPR, Eastern Hararghe and Western Ethiopia, white pea bean is consumed usually mixed with other cereals. In eastern and western Ethiopia, it is widely intercropped with maize and sorghum to supplement farmers with additional income. They are also consumed boiled, fried, milled, or grounded in the form of soups. Crop utilization survey data for haricot bean indicated that of the total national production of haricot bean, 69.87% was utilized for household consumption, 18.75% for sale; while the balance was used for seed; wage in kind, animal feed and other uses.

In general, earlier research estimates that, excluding the volume of grain set aside for consumption, seed and feed, 28 percent of total grain production (including oilseeds and pulses) is marketed, of which 29.8 percent is accounted by pulse crops in general. In general, the commercial grain supplies mainly come from the production of small farmers, private commercial farmers, state farmers, imports and food aid. The market participants in Haricot bean trade include producers (small holders and commercial farms), wholesalers, retailers, part-time farmer- traders, brokers, agents, assemblers, processors, cooperatives, EGTE, and consumers.

Global Scenario: White pea bean has become an important export item in the country’s pulse exports. In 2005/06 for instance, Ethiopia exported about 62, 262 tons of haricot beans /mainly white pea beans/ valued at about 22 million USD or about 193.7 million ETB, with a unit value of export of 353 USD/mt. The value of export was destined mainly to various countries such as: Sudan, Yemen, South Africa, UAE, USA, UK, Italy, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. The world production of dry beans was 18.3 million tons in 2004. World export of dry beans in 2004 totaled 1.3 billion USD and the volume of export was 3 million. Concerning imports, in 2004, the volume of world import of dry beans was 2.4 million tons, valued at 1.2 billion USD.

Prices: Based on available data of wholesale prices in Dire Dawa, Nazareth, Hosaina and Shashemene, the national average prices of haricot bean shows a rising trend during the 2004-06 period. This trend is explained by the fact that, apart from the home market consumption uses, haricot bean (especially white pea bean and red kidney bean) is highly exported to the overseas market.

Contracts
  1. ECX white peabeans
  2. ECX Red Kidney Beans
 

Domestic Scenario: In the past century, maize has gained increasing importance as a major food source within Africa. As one of the most important grains in the world, maize serves as basic raw material for the production of starch, oil and protein, alcoholic beverages and food sweeteners.

Product Varieties: The varieties of maize in use in Ethiopia fall under the Dent maize and Flint Maize categories. The improved hybrid maize varieties are: BH 660, BH 140, BH 540, BH 530, PHB 3253, 30 F 19 (ajeb), 30 H 83 (tabor), HB 30 G 97 (shendi), BH 540, BH QPM 542, and BH 670. Besides, the improved open planted maize varieties are: Kuleni, A 511, Rare 1 (EV 1), Alemaya composite, UCB, Guto, Abo Bako, Gibe composite 1, and Gamella composite (gusaw).

Agro-Ecological Conditions: Generally, maize is cold intolerant and depends heavily on soil moistures as its root system is shallow. The planting period for maize in Ethiopia varies slightly from area to area with the normal planting period lying between late March and late April and early May to June in the eastern/southeastern and north/southwestern parts of Ethiopia, respectively. Maize harvest shows similar variation: early November to late December in the east/southeastern regions and late December to mid-January in the north/southwest regions of Ethiopia. Though maize is able to grow under different agro-ecological conditions, it requires an altitude of up to 2,400m above sea level with a rainfall between 800-1,500mm to yield higher production.

Domestic Production: In Ethiopia, maize is a leading cereal crop with main season production totaling 2.9 million tons in 2005/06 and accounting for 21.2% of major crops production (including oilseeds and pulses) in the same year. In the past year, maize production has, on average, accounted for 25.5% of crop production. The main season yield of maize, for the period 1998/99-2005-06, ranged from a low of 1.5 tons per hectare to a high of 2.1 tons per hectare, of which the average yield per hectare was 1.83 tons.

The lion’s share of maize production in country comes from three regions, namely, Oromia region (61%), Amhara (20%) and SNNPR (12%). Crop utilization survey data shows that, of the total national production of maize, 76.03% was utilized for household consumption, 10.22% for sale; while the balance was used for seed; wage in kind, animal feed and other.

Research result shows that excluding the volume of grain set aside for consumption, 28% of total grain production (including the oilseeds and pulses) is marketed, of which 16.3% is accounted for by maize, putting the marketable surplus of maize at 16.7%. Close to 95% of the marketed quantity comes from smallholders and the rest from commercial and state farms.

Domestic Trade structure/characteristics: In general, the commercial grain supplies come mainly from the production of small farmers, private commercial farmers, state farmers, and import and food aid. The market participants in the maize trade include producers (small holders and commercial farms), wholesalers, retailers, part-time farmer- traders, brokers, agents, assemblers, processors, cooperatives, EGTE, and consumers.

Global Scenario: In 2005/06, total national export of maize was 2,736 tons valued at about 450,000 USD or 3.9 million Birr. This value of export was destined to Sudan (67%) and Djibouti (23%) with an average unit value of 162.7 USD/mt. The world production of maize reached 724.6 million tons in 2004 with world export totaling 83 million tons /11.7 billion USD/ and world imports reaching 83 million tons /14.6 billion USD/.

Prices: The Addis Ababa wholesale prices of maize, during 2004-06, reveal an identifiable pattern of relatively low post-harvest January prices followed by rising prices

Contracts
  1. ECX maize
 

Domestic Production: As one of the major cereals produced in Ethiopia, wheat accounts for 17.5% of major crops production (including oilseeds and pulses). Its end uses include consumption for food, animal feed and industrial raw material. The major types of wheat grown in Ethiopia consist of: Bread wheat, Durum wheat and Emmer wheat.

Product Varieties: Durum wheat, differentiated by its big size and weight is mainly suitable for pasta, macaroni, pastini and other manufacturing products.The improved varieties of Durum wheat include: DZ 04-118 (Arendet), DZ 04-668 (Maru), Kokerit 71, Jerardo, LD 357, Buhe, Foka, Klinto, Bichena, Tob 66 (arsi robe), Quami, Assassa, Robe, and Ginch.

Bread wheat, which comprises about half the area of wheat in the country, bears flour when broken and has a softer texture when compared to Durum wheat. This type of wheat is highly demanded by the agro-industries and is widely grown in high land and semi-highland parts of the country; specifically, Arsi, Bale, Western Shoa, Eastern Shoa, Northern Shoa, Kembata, Hadya, Alaba, Gojam, North and South Gonder, North Wollo and Tigray Regions. The improved varieties of bread wheat include: Dereselign, k-6290-Belik, k-6295-4A, ET 13, Paven 76, Mitike (HAR 1709), Wabe (HAR 710), Kubsa (HAR 1685), Galema (HAR 604), Abol (HAR 1522), Megal (HAR 1595), Tuse (HAR 1407). There are also other varieties of bread wheat that are in the process of being disseminated to farmers. This includes: Ktar (HAR 1899), Tura (HAR 1775), Simba (HAR 2536), Hawi (HAR 2501), Dodota (HAR 2508), Watera (HAR 1920), Shena (HAR 1868), Meda welabu (H1480AR), Sof Omar (HAR 1889), Sirbo (HAR 2192), Dure (HAR 1008), Guna (HAR 20292029), and KBG-0 (FH-1-7A). On the other hand, Emmer wheat /Aja/ has a double-coated outer layer. It is mainly grown in Arsi, Bale, west Shoa, east Shoa, north and south Wollo and other areas having similar agro ecological conditions.

Agro-Ecological Conditions: The planting period for wheat in Ethiopia varies slightly from area to area. In general though, the normal planting period for wheat extends from early June to mid-August. Wheat grows at altitudes of 1,600-3,200m above sea level, at an average temperature ranging from 15-25ºC with suitable rainfall ranging between 400 and 1,200mm. Normal rainfall distribution is expected during early growth period. While it can grow in many parts throughout Ethiopia, wheat is widely grown in southeastern, central and northwestern parts of the country. Additionally, places that are suitable for irrigation agriculture are conducive for wheat growth.

Domestic Production: In 2005/06, the volume of main season production of wheat was 2.4 million tons with the lion’s share of wheat production in the country originating from Oromia (59%), Amhara (27%) and SNNPR (9%). The main season yield for wheat, for the period 1998/99-2005/06, ranged from a low of 1.08 mt/hectare to a high of 1.67mt/hectare. During this period, wheat yield levels averaged 1.36 mt/hectare.

Commercialization: Excluding the volume of grain set aside for consumption, 28% of total grain production (including oilseeds and pulses) is marketed, of which 15.4% percent is accounted for by wheat. Crop utilization survey data shows that, of the total national production of wheat, 59.27% was utilized for household consumption, 19.54% for sale, while the balance was used for seed, wage in kind, animal feed and other uses.

Domestic Trade structure/characteristics: In general, the commercial grain supplies mainly come from the production of small farmers, private commercial farmers, state farmers, imports and food aid. The market participants in Wheat trade include producers (small holders and commercial farms), wholesalers, retailers, part-time farmer- traders, brokers, agents, assemblers, processors, cooperatives, EGTE, and consumers.

Global Scenario: Though the export of wheat is negligible, Ethiopia’s export of cereals and cereal preparations allowed national export earning in 2005/06 was 38,466 tons, valued at 14 million USD. Globally, the world production of wheat reached 632.6 million tons in 2004 of which world export of wheat in 2004 totaled 19.3 billion USD and the volume of export was 118.8 million tons. The volume of world import of wheat was 116 million tons valued at 21 billion USD.

Prices: Over the period 2004-06, the price of white wheat displays a similar pattern of relatively low post-harvest January prices followed by a period of rising prices reaching their peak during the main rainy season. However, the price variability of wheat is significant. The Addis Ababa Central market intra-year price variation between highest and lowest prices shows a low 26% in 2006, while this was 29% and 36% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Nevertheless, the price of wheat in 2006 shows drastically higher prices compared to the preceding years for all the months.

Contracts
  1. ECX wheat