GMBS2 2834 : 286 | GMBS3 2591 : 137 | GMBS3 2755 : 145 | GMBS3 2651 : 140 | GMBSLG 2517 : 133 | LUBPAA1 1415 : 43 | LUBPAA2 1299 : 3 | LUBPAA3 1141 : 41 | LUBPAA4 1011 : 27 | LUBPAA5 931 : 27 | LUJM3 1000 : 61 | LUWL4 895 : 45 | LUWL5 857 : 27 | LWBP1 1517 : 0 | LWBP2 1495 : 4 | LWBP3 1532 : 102 | LWBP4 1260 : 61 | LWJM1 1180 : 28 | LWJM2 1080 : 73 | LWSD3 1325 : 106 | UBM8 990 : 10 | UBM9 965 : 5 | UGJQ1 1800 : 0 | UHRA4 2370 : 13 | UHRB5 2090 : 0 | UHRB6 1995 : 0 | UHRC5 2059 : 1 | UIB6 1123 : 2 | UIB6 1137 : 10 | UIB7 1070 : 1 | UJM6 1153 : 7 | UJM7 1070 : 0 | UKF4 1260 : 20 | UKF5 1210 : 11 | UKF6 1180 : 30 | UKF7 1110 : 34 | UKW3 1270 : 46 | UKW6 1213 : 4 | UYCAQ2 1700 : 27 | UYCB6 1350 : 10 | UYCB7 1240 : 4 | RWPA4 2360 : 140 | RWPA5 2350 : 130 | RWPALG 2330 : 97 | WHGS3 4000 : 2100 | WHGS3 4196 : 214 | WHGS4 4000 : 0 | WWSS3 4095 : 455 | WWSS5 4000 : 250 | WWSSUG 3000 : 87 | CRKCA2 1930 : 1930 | CRKCA3 1930 : 1930 | SBAS2 1610 : 39 | SBGJ2 1676 : 7 | SBGJ3 1660 : 10

Domestic Scenario: In the past century, maize has gained increasing importance as a major food source within Africa. As one of the most important grains in the world, maize serves as basic raw material for the production of starch, oil and protein, alcoholic beverages and food sweeteners.

Product Varieties: The varieties of maize in use in Ethiopia fall under the Dent maize and Flint Maize categories. The improved hybrid maize varieties are: BH 660, BH 140, BH 540, BH 530, PHB 3253, 30 F 19 (ajeb), 30 H 83 (tabor), HB 30 G 97 (shendi), BH 540, BH QPM 542, and BH 670. Besides, the improved open planted maize varieties are: Kuleni, A 511, Rare 1 (EV 1), Alemaya composite, UCB, Guto, Abo Bako, Gibe composite 1, and Gamella composite (gusaw).

Agro-Ecological Conditions: Generally, maize is cold intolerant and depends heavily on soil moistures as its root system is shallow. The planting period for maize in Ethiopia varies slightly from area to area with the normal planting period lying between late March and late April and early May to June in the eastern/southeastern and north/southwestern parts of Ethiopia, respectively. Maize harvest shows similar variation: early November to late December in the east/southeastern regions and late December to mid-January in the north/southwest regions of Ethiopia. Though maize is able to grow under different agro-ecological conditions, it requires an altitude of up to 2,400m above sea level with a rainfall between 800-1,500mm to yield higher production.

Domestic Production: In Ethiopia, maize is a leading cereal crop with main season production totaling 2.9 million tons in 2005/06 and accounting for 21.2% of major crops production (including oilseeds and pulses) in the same year. In the past year, maize production has, on average, accounted for 25.5% of crop production. The main season yield of maize, for the period 1998/99-2005-06, ranged from a low of 1.5 tons per hectare to a high of 2.1 tons per hectare, of which the average yield per hectare was 1.83 tons.

The lion’s share of maize production in country comes from three regions, namely, Oromia region (61%), Amhara (20%) and SNNPR (12%). Crop utilization survey data shows that, of the total national production of maize, 76.03% was utilized for household consumption, 10.22% for sale; while the balance was used for seed; wage in kind, animal feed and other.

Research result shows that excluding the volume of grain set aside for consumption, 28% of total grain production (including the oilseeds and pulses) is marketed, of which 16.3% is accounted for by maize, putting the marketable surplus of maize at 16.7%. Close to 95% of the marketed quantity comes from smallholders and the rest from commercial and state farms.

Domestic Trade structure/characteristics: In general, the commercial grain supplies come mainly from the production of small farmers, private commercial farmers, state farmers, and import and food aid. The market participants in the maize trade include producers (small holders and commercial farms), wholesalers, retailers, part-time farmer- traders, brokers, agents, assemblers, processors, cooperatives, EGTE, and consumers.

Global Scenario: In 2005/06, total national export of maize was 2,736 tons valued at about 450,000 USD or 3.9 million Birr. This value of export was destined to Sudan (67%) and Djibouti (23%) with an average unit value of 162.7 USD/mt. The world production of maize reached 724.6 million tons in 2004 with world export totaling 83 million tons /11.7 billion USD/ and world imports reaching 83 million tons /14.6 billion USD/.

Prices: The Addis Ababa wholesale prices of maize, during 2004-06, reveal an identifiable pattern of relatively low post-harvest January prices followed by rising prices

ECX maize contract specs.pdf